Chandigarh, the dream city of India's first Prime Minister, Sh. Jawahar Lal Nehru, was planned by the famous French architect Le Corbusier. Picturesquely located at the foothills of Shivaliks, it is known as one of the best experiments in urban planning and moderarchitecture in the twentieth century in India.
Chandigarh derives its name from the temple of "Chandi Mandir" located in the vicinity of the site selected for the city. The deity 'Chandi', the goddess of power and a fort of 'garh' laying beyond the temple gave the city its name "Chandigarh-The City Beautiful".
The city is planned in many sections like, residential, commercial and industrial area. It was planned by architect Le Corbusier with the help of his cousin Pierre Jeanneret. Along with that many Indian architect Narinder S Lamba and J C Verma. They also contributed to build this city.
Chandigarh is a modern city with its first stone laid in 1952. Initially, the place came under Punjab and therefore, Lahore was its capital but then during the partition, west Punjab became the part of Pakistan while east Punjab was given to India. Since, east Punjab did not have any capital, in 1948 the government planned to create a new city which would be the capital of both Punjab and Haryana. In this way, the foundation stone of a new city Chandigarh was laid down and an area covering 114 sq kms was declared as Chandigarh. It spread from Shivalik Ranges and known to be called as the capital city.
This city consists of several monuments and sculptures designed by Le Corbusier. One of them is Open Hand that is 26 metres high and gives you a glimpse of the real architecture of the modern style. This piece of architecture is a sign of ?peace and reconciliation?. The idea behind this creation is to inculcate the feeling of give and take. In total, there are six monuments which have been designed by Le Corbusier and includes Secretariat, Assemble and High Court. Buildings like Martyrs Memorial and Geometric Hill are not yet completed. It has been since 1956 that these buildings are left in an incomplete state and no further action is yet taken.
Chandigarh was formed on 1st November in 1966 when Haryana was created from the eastern Punjab region. The people of Haryana used to speak Hindi while people of East Punjab used their native language Punjabi to communicate with people. As this city was on the border, therefore a decision was taken to declare it as a union territory so that it could become the capital city of both the states.
Language And Culture
The official language of Chandigarh is English. This greatly helps the international and domestic tourists to strike up a conversation with the natives and for roaming around the place without much hassle. Most of the people living here are Punjabi; therefore their common language of communication is Punjabi. Though people speak other languages too like Hindi and English but still Punjabi remains to be their local language.
Chandigarh, The rich culture of the city stands as a testimonial of its multi-ethnic population.The people of this city observe all the festivals with proper rituals and traditions. The main festivals observed by the people in Chandigarh are Baisakhi, Gurpurab, Holla Mohalla, Lohri, Tika, Karva Chauth, Raksha Bandhan, Dusshera and Diwali. All of them are celebrated with equal merriment and enthusiasm.
Chandigarh has a rich tradition of folk dances, borrowed from the parent states of Punjab and Haryana. The people of the city are very lively and celebrate all the occasions to the fullest, with the folk dances accompanying each of them almost always. Bhangra, Giddha, Jhumar, Luddi, Julli, Dhamal, Sammi, Jaago, Teeyan, Dankara, Kikili and Gatka are some of the popular folk dances of the city.
State animal: Indian grey mongoose (Herpestes Edwardsi)
State bird: Indian grey hornbill
State flower: Butea monosperma
State tree: Jacaranda mimosifolia
1.The Government Museum and Art Gallery
2.Nek Chand's Rock Garden
5.International Dolls Museum
2.Mani Majra (R), Basti Kishangarh, Basti Bhagwanpura
3. Mauli Jagran
How to Reach
The airport is 11 km from the main city. Various airlines connect Chandigarh to the other main cities of the country like New Delhi, Mumbai, Bengaluru, Amritsar, Kullu, Indore and Dharamsala.
Airport(s): Chandigarh Airport (IXC)
Daily trains connect Chandigarh to Delhi. Chandigarh is also well linked to other cities of the country like Mumbai, Kolkata, Lucknow, Chennai, etc. via rail.
Railway Station(s): Chandigarh Junction (CDG), Chandi Mandir (CNDM)
National Highway 21 and 22 connect Chandigarh to different cities in the country. Chandigarh is well connected by road to states such as Punjab, Haryana, Delhi and Himachal Pradesh.
Bus Station(s): Chandigarh, Chandigarh